a- without, not, negative (asexual, atrophy, asymmetry)
ab- away from (aboral, abductor, absorption)
ad-, af-, an-, at- to or toward (adrenal, adductor, adaptation, afferent, atrium)
adipo- fat (adipose)
aero- air, gas, oxygen (aerobic, anaerobic, aerial)
alba- white (albicans)
ambi-, amphi- both, double (ambidextrous, amphibian, amphioxus, amphicoelous
ana- apart (anaphase)
ante-, antero- before, previous to (anterior, anteroposterior)
anti- against (antibody, antimere)
arthro- joint (arthropod, arthritis)
auto- self (autoimmune, autonomic, autosome, autonomy)
bio- life, live (biology, biogenesis, biogeography)
bis-, bi- two, double (bisect, bivalve, biramous, bilateral)
blast- germ (blastoderm, blastula)
brachi- arm (brachial, brachiopoda)
-brevis short (peroneus brevis)
bronchi- windpipe (bronchiole)
-bulla blister (tympanic bulla)
capit head (rectus capitis)
cata- down (catabolism)
cauda- tail (caudal, caudata)
cephalo-, cranio- head (cephalothorax, cephalic, craniosacral)
chemo- chemical (chemoreceptor)
chondr- cartilage, granule (chondrocyte, mitochondrion)
circum- around, about (circumpharyngeal)
-clast to break (osteoclast)
co- with, together (coenzyme, commensal, convergent)
-cost rib (intercostal)
-cox hip (os coxae)
cruci- cross (cruciate)
cubit- elbow (cubital)
cyto- cell (cytology, cytoplasm, spermatocyte)
de-, des- from, away, lost (dehydration, descending)
delta- triangle (deltoideus)
dent- tooth (dentine)
derm- skin (dermal, ectoderm, echinoderm)
dextr- right hand (dextrin)
di- two, double (dihybrid, dimorphic, diencephalon)
dia- across, through (diaphragm)
diplo- double (diploid)
-duct lead (oviduct, duct)
duo- two (duodenum)
dura- hard (dura mater)
e-, ex-, ef- out of, from (efferent, excurrent, excretion)
ecto- on the outside of, outer (ectoderm, ectoparasite)
ella-, -ium, -olus, -olum, -culus, -culum, -cle, -cule these are diminutives, i.e. the signify a small thing
en-, endo- in, inside (endoderm)
entero- intestine, gut (enteric, archenteron)
epi- upon, above (epigenesis, epithelium, epidermis)
erythro- red (erythrocyte)
eu- true, well, real (eucaryote)
ex-, extra- beyond, additional, outside of (excretion, extracellular)
-fer bear, carry, possess (porifera, rotifera, afferent)
-flex bending, turning (reflex, circumflex)
-gaster- stomach (gastrula, gastropoda, gastric)
gene-, gen- producing (genetic)
-glossa- tongue (hypoglossal, genioglossus)
haplo- single, simple (haploid)
hem-, heme- blood (hemoglobin, hematoma)
hemi- half (hemisphere, hemichordate)
hepato- liver (hepatic)
hetero- other, different (heterozygous, heterogamy)
histo- tissue (histology)
holo- entire, whole (holocrine, holoblastic, holozoic)
homo- alike, same, equal (homozygous, homology)
hydro-, hygro- water (hydrolysis)
hyper- above (hyperthyroid, hyperkinetic)
hypo- under (hypovolemic, hypodermic)
-ia, -id, -osis, -tion, -y- state of, condition (myopia, gravid)
im-, in- in (implant, ingest, inherit)
infra- below (infrared, infraspinatus)
inter- between (intercostal, intervertebral)
intra-, intro- into (intracellular, introduction)
iso- same, equal to (isothermic, isotonic)
-ist, -or, -er, -ite agent of (anatomist)
itis- inflammation (gastritis, neuritis, hepatitis)
lact- milk (lactation)
later-, latus- side (lateral)
leuco- white (leucocyte)
lingua- tongue (lingual)
lympho-, lyo- water (lymph, lymphocyte)
macro- large (macroscopic, macrophage)
maxilla- jaw (maxilliped, maxilla)
meso- middle (mesoderm, mesothorax, mesonephros)
meta- between, beyond, after (metamere, metanephros, metaphase)
micro- small (microscopic, microbe)
mito- thread (mitosis, mitochondria)
mono- one, single (monocyte, monoecious)
-morph- form (morphogenesis, morphology, metamorphosis)
myo- muscle (myoglobin, myocardium myoseptum)
necro- dead (necropsy)
neo- new (neotony, neoplasm)
nephro- kidney (nephrostome, nephridia, metanephros, nephron)
neuro- nerve (neurology)
nom-, -onomy name (taxonomy, nomenclature)
nuc- nut (nucleus)
o-, ovo- egg (oviduct, ovary)
ob- in front of, inverse (observe, obstruct)
-oid resemblance (hydroid, mucoid)
oligo- few (oligocere, oligodendrocyte)
ortho- straight (orthogenesis, orthodontics)
osse-, ost-, os- bone (periosteum, osteoblast)
para- side by side, near (parathyroid, parasite)
pariet- wall (parietal)
-ped foot (biped)
peri- around (pericardium, peritoneum)
-phage, phag to eat (phagocyte, sarcophagus)
-phile to love, require, attraction (eosinophile, hemophilia)
photo- light (photosynthesis)
-physis to grow (epiphysis)
-plasm, -plast anything formed (protoplasm, plasma, plasmodium)
-pleur- side (pleurisy)
pod-, ped- foot (tetrapod, podiatry)
poly- many (polynucleate, polymorphic)
post-, postero- after, hind part (posterior)
pre- before (preview, predominate)
-proctum- anus (proctodeum)
proto- first (protoplasm, protozoa, prototype)
pseudo- false (pseudopod)
-pteron, -pter wing (coleoptera,diptera, chiroptera)
pulmo- lung (pulmonary)
quadr- four (quadruped)
re-, retro- again, turn back, turn again (reflex, regenerate)
rect- straight (rectus abdominis)
ren- kidney (renal)
-rhage, -rhea flow (hemorrhage)
sagitta- arrow (sagittal)
sarc- flesh (sarcophytic, sarcoplasm)
scler- hard (sclera, sclerotic)
-sect to cut (dissect)
semi- half, part way (semicircular)
septa- wall (septum)
soma- body (somite, somatic)
-stasis stop, stand (homeostasis, bacteriostasis)
stom- mouth (stomata, nephrostome, cytostome)
sub- under, below (suborder, submarine)
super-, supra- over, above, beyond (superorder, suprascapular)
sym-, syn- together, resemble (symbiosis, synapse, syncytium)
tel-, tele- far, distant (telescope, telophase)
teres- round (teres minor)
tetra- four (tetrapod)
thyro- door, shield (thyroid)
-tom to cut (microtome, anatomy)
tri- three (tricuspid)
-troph nourishment, growth, food (gonadotrophic, tropism)
uni- one (unicellular)
vaso- vessel (vasoconstrictor)
villi- shaggy (microvilli)
vita- life (vital)
zoo- animal (zoology, holozoic, protozoa)
zygo- join, united, yoked together (zygote, heterozygous)




Larry M Frolich, Ph.D.    Miami Dade College  ∞   Wolfson Campus   ∞   Natural Sciences   ∞   Miami, FL  33132  ∞  Office 1504   ∞  (305) 237-7589  ∞  e-mail   Creative Commons License